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Author Laszlo Bence Nagy

Automatic mutual TLS in Istio

One of the exciting new features of Istio 1.4 is automatic mutual TLS support, which brings some long awaited convenience to Istio users configuring mTLS for their applications.

In this post, we’ll be introducing the concept of Istio’s auto mTLS feature and demonstrating how it works using a demo application. Today, we’ll be using our open-source Banzai Cloud Istio Operator and our multi and hybrid-cloud enabled service mesh platform, Backyards, to install Istio 1.4, use its auto mTLS feature, and display our findings.

Automatic mTLS introduction

In previous Istio releases, it was necessary to create Destination Rules to use mTLS. The new automatic mTLS feature allows you to adopt mutual TLS without creating any Destination Rule.

With the default mesh-wide PERMISSIVE mTLS setting, Istio automatically configures client sidecar proxies to send mutual TLS traffic to workloads with Envoy sidecars, and to send plain text traffic to workloads without them. This process is fully automated, and there is no need to worry about incorrectly configuring your Destination Rules, which, previously, might have lead to some difficult debug issues.

This feature makes using mTLS much more convenient, but, of course, you can still set restrictions: configure a service so that it only accepts mutual TLS traffic or only accepts plain text traffic. These settings will be described later, during the demo.

Automatic mTLS is an alpha feature in Istio 1.4 and is disabled by default. It is expected, though, that it will be enabled by default in future releases.


Try it out!

Create a cluster

For this demo we’ll need a Kubernetes cluster.

I created a Kubernetes cluster on AWS, using Banzai Cloud’s lightweight, CNCF-certified Kubernetes distribution, PKE via the Pipeline platform. If you’d like to do likewise, go ahead and create your clusters on any of the five cloud providers we support or on-premise using Pipeline for free.

Install Istio 1.4

The easiest way of installing Istio 1.4, Backyards, and a demo application on a brand new cluster is to use the Backyards CLI.

You just need to issue this command (KUBECONFIG must be set for your cluster):

$ curl https://getbackyards.sh | sh && backyards install -a --run-demo

This command first installs Istio with our open-source Istio operator, then installs Backyards itself as well as a demo application for demonstration purposes. After the installation of each component has finished, the Backyards UI will automatically open and send some traffic to the demo application. By issuing this one simple command you can watch as Backyards starts a brand new production ready Istio cluster in just a few minutes! Give it a try!

Tip: Backyards is a core component of the Pipeline platform - you can try the hosted developer version here: https://try.banzaicloud.io/ (Service Mesh tab).

Enable auto mTLS with the Istio operator

As mentioned above, auto mTLS in Istio 1.4 is an alpha feature - is disabled by default - so our first step is to enable it using the Istio operator. Just set autoMtls: true in the spec of the Istio CR, and the operator will take care of the rest.

For the sake of this demo and to show that mTLS traffic is only turned on because of the automatic mutual TLS feature, I have also disabled the global mTLS policy in the cluster by setting mtls: false in the Istio CR.

Observe traffic

To determine whether services are communicating with mTLS or sending plain text data to each other, we’ll be using the Backyards UI. In the top bar we can set edge labels to show security, which will result in the edges showing whether mTLS is being used.

The Backyards UI should open automatically if you execute backyards install -a --run-demo, but, as an alternative, you can always open it with our backyards dashboard.

Let’s explore how auto mTLS works

First, we’ll explore what happens in a default setup, then we’ll show what changes when we set a STRICT mTLS policy, or if we disable mTLS policy for a given service. In these examples, we’ll be comparing calls that are coming from in mesh and out of mesh.

Default setup

By default, there is no global mTLS or any other namespace or service-based mTLS turned on in the cluster, only the auto mTLS feature we just enabled. There are no Destination Rules or Policies, there is only a default MeshPolicy which enables PERMISSIVE mTLS in the cluster. The demo application will be in the backyards-demo namespace, where sidecar injection is turned on by default, so all workloads will be in the mesh and have a sidecar proxy.

In mesh

Backyards has a built-in load tester tool, which you can use to easily generate traffic to an application. After sending some load, you should be able to see applications with sidecars in the demo app communicating with each other using mutual TLS as indicated by the green locks on the UI.

autoMtls-enabled

Remember, in earlier versions of Istio this would not have been possible without configuring the necessary Destination Rules.

Out of mesh

Let’s make sure it’s possible to call a service in the mesh from a workload outside of the mesh, with PERMISSIVE mTLS. First, we’ll create a namespace without sidecar injection, and a curl pod in the namespace without a sidecar. Then we’ll call the bookings service from the curl pod and get the result. This call will be made without mTLS, as there is no sidecar in the pod.

$ kubectl create ns no-injection
$ kubectl -n=no-injection run curl-test --image=radial/busyboxplus:curl -i --tty --rm
[ root@curl-test-69897d4f95-7dd8h:/ ]$ curl bookings.backyards-demo:8080
bookings service response

Setting STRICT mTLS policy

We can put restrictions in place so that a service only accepts mTLS traffic. Let’s create a Policy resource to allow only mTLS calls to the bookings service:

$ kubectl -n=backyards-demo apply -f - <<EOF
apiVersion: "authentication.istio.io/v1alpha1"
kind: "Policy"
metadata:
  name: "bookings"
spec:
  targets:
  - name: bookings
  peers:
  - mtls: {}
EOF

As of now, this step needs to be done manually, but setting the TLS policy globally, or for namespaces or services, will soon be available from the Backyards UI, as well as from the CLI and GraphQL API. You can expect many more security-related features in upcoming Backyards releases.

In mesh

If we generate another load and check on the Backyards UI, we’ll see the same result as earlier: mTLS traffic flowing between services in the mesh with green locks on their edges.

Out of mesh

But now let’s try calling the bookings service out of the mesh with the curl pod:

[ root@curl-test-69897d4f95-7dd8h:/ ]$ curl bookings.backyards-demo:8080
curl: (56) Recv failure: Connection reset by peer

This fails, since only mTLS traffic is allowed, and the pod without an Envoy sidecar can only send plain text data.

Disabling mTLS policy

We can also restrict a service so that it only accepts plain text calls. Let’s create a Policy resource that allows only plain text calls to the bookings service:

$ kubectl -n=backyards-demo apply -f - <<EOF
apiVersion: "authentication.istio.io/v1alpha1"
kind: "Policy"
metadata:
  name: "bookings"
spec:
  targets:
  - name: bookings
EOF

In mesh

What happens inside the mesh, when only plain text is allowed?

autoMtls-plain-text

As we can see, the traffic is still flowing but the sidecar of the frontpage service is automatically configured to send plain text data when calling the bookings service. We can see this on the UI from the red locks on the edges.

Out of mesh

Let’s call the bookings service out of the mesh, again:

[ root@curl-test-69897d4f95-7dd8h:/ ]$ curl bookings.backyards-demo:8080
bookings service response

This time it succeeds, and, as we expected, it sends plain text data.

Summary

Let’s sum up what we’ve seen in a table:

from in mesh from out of mesh
PERMISSIVE lock lock_open
STRICT lock clear
DISABLED lock_open lock_open
  • PERMISSIVE mTLS policy: mTLS was used from a workload with a sidecar proxy, plain text data was sent from out of the mesh
  • STRICT mTLS policy: inside the mesh mTLS was used, but the service could not be called from outside of the mesh
  • Disabled mTLS policy: plain text data was sent from both in and out of the mesh


Cleanup

To remove the demo application, Backyards, and Istio from your cluster, you only need to apply one command, which takes care of removing these components in the correct order:

$ backyards uninstall -a


Takeaway

The automatic mutual TLS feature brings some much anticipated convenience to Istio users when configuring mTLS for their workloads. The feature is expected to mature, until, eventually, it will be enabled by default in future Istio releases.

Auto mTLS is already supported by the Banzai Cloud Istio Operator and can be conveniently observed on the Backyards UI. Expect many more security features arriving in Backyards soon!


About Backyards

Banzai Cloud’s Backyards is a multi and hybrid-cloud enabled service mesh platform for constructing modern applications. Built on Kubernetes, our Istio operator and Pipeline enables flexibility, portability and consistency across on-premise datacenters and on five cloud environments. Use our simple, yet extremely powerful, UI and CLI, and experience automated canary releases, traffic shifting, routing, secure service communication, in-depth observability and more, for yourself.

#multicloud #hybridcloud #BanzaiCloud

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